**Ladder Diagram Symbols**

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Ladder diagrams are one traditional method for describing control circuits. There are a few basic ladder diagram symbols that are used to express the meaning and purpose of a control circuit. This section presents some of the common symbols used in the ladder diagrams. It also presents examples that illustrate the connection between the process and the ladder diagram and that indicate the procedure for analyzing a ladder diagram to determine its control functions. For the standard Ladder diagrams sometimes are referred to as elementary diagrams or schematics. They are called so because of the vertical power rails and the horizontal rungs that are individual parallel circuits between the common power rails. For the purpose of this discussion.electrical symbols will be used. Boolean logic is used in these diagrams to represent switch and relay contacts. The basic ladder diagram symbols that are used in electrical ladder diagrams are described in this section.They are popular for describing combinatorial circuits or sequencing networks. They are also a basis for writing programs for programmable logic controllers. A ladder diagram reflects a conventional wiring diagram of the physical arrangement of the various components (switches, relays, motors, valves, etc.) and their interconnections. It is used by an electrician (field maintenance engineer) to do the actual wiring of a control panel. 18.5.1 Ladder Diagram Symbols There are a few Therefore, the vertical line at.the right edge of electric ladder diagrams 1representing groundl is not needed. Since those manufacturers using pneumatic ladder diagrams want to attract users already familiar with electric ladder diagrams, they attempt to use the same terminology and symbols, as far as possible. Thus, pneumatic valves are represented as relays and called "relay valves," with valve passages represented by relaycontact symbols. However, confusion can easily result, UNI logic diagrams Outcomes Subject Outcome 3.2 Demonstrate a basic knowledge of PLCs Learning Outcomes 3.2.1 Recognise the schematic symbols used in ladder logic diagrams 3.2.2 Sketch the schematic symbols used in ladder logic diagrams The first step you need to take when you start.learning about ladder logic is to find out what the ladder logic symbols look like and how to draw them. In this unit, you will first find out more about what ladder logic is. Then you will learn Keep relay See Holding Relay. Keyboard The alphanumeric keypad on which the programmer enters instructions to the PLC (see Programming C onsole). Label The means of identification of words, addresses, contacts and coilsâ€”normally in letters, numbers or alphanumerics. Ladder diagram A system of successive horizontal rungs with contact symbols representing the logic operation of a control system. The symbols are drawn in relay logic or PLClogic form. The control contacts Remember that ladder logic is a programming language that uses symbols.instead of words. We call a ladder logic program a ladderlogic diagram. Study Table 5.1 on page 143 to refresh your memory on the basic ladderlogic symbols and their functions. Ladder logic is the main language used to program PLCs. It uses symbols in horizontal rows, called rungs, to represent inputs and outputs. A program in this language looks like a ladder. This is why we call it a ladderlogic diagram.Three types of diagrams commonly used in the design of interlock systems in the process industries are (1) the process flowchart, (2) the logic diagram and (3) the ladder diagram. The last two are sometimes referred to as the 'attached logic diagram' and the 'detached logic diagram', respectively. The starting point.for design of an interlock system is a description of a sequence of operations. A diagram showing this is a process chart. Process chart symbols have been given in Work The Second Edition features a new chapter on robotics, a new 16page color insert, and information on the latest codes, regulations, and devices.These languages use prepackaged functions, represented by simple words or symbols descriptive of the function concerned. For example, with C language the symbol & is used for the logic AND operation. However, the use of these methods to write programs requires some skill in programming, and PLCs are intended to be used by engineers without any great knowledge of programming. As a consequence, ladder programming (LAD) was.developed as a means of writing programs